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السلام علیکم ورحمة الله وبرکاته ډېرخوشحال شوم چی تاسی هډاوال ويب ګورۍ الله دی اجرونه درکړي هډاوال ويب پیغام لسانی اوژبنيز او قومي تعصب د بربادۍ لاره ده


اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَا تُهُ




اللهم لك الحمد حتى ترضى و لك الحمد إذا رضيت و لك الحمد بعد الرضى



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Friday, September 2, 2011

AFGHAN ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER








































































































































































































































































































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  Grammar:-the rules which changes the forms of words and organize  
                        them to make a correct sentence is called grammar.

   گرامر:- هغه قوانين چې د هغې پواسطه د لغاتونو حالت تغير کوي اوتنظيميږي، 
              تر څو يوه صحيح جمله لاسته راشي، گرامر بلل کيږي.   

  Language:- is the way of communication among living beings.
  
    ژبه :-  د ژونديو موجوداتو تر منځ د پوهېدلو او پوهولو طريقې ته ژبه وايي.
Parts of speech د کلام اجزاوې-

 Parts of speech are words that make sentences.

 د کلام اجزاوې هغه لغاتونه دي چې د هغې څخه جملې جوړيږي.

  Note: - They are stated in nine groups.

Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
  Verb
    Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Article
Interjection

1. Noun:- is the name that is used for person, place, thing, animal, 
                 or quality .

١. اسم :- هغه نوم دى چې د شخص،ځاى،شي،حيوان او کيفيت لپاره 
               استعماليږي.Examples:                                                         

          Jalal, Samim    Khost, Kabul   ball, pen   horse, camel  
          Teacher, doctor       answer, question     cleanness etc.


2. Pronoun:-  is a word that is used instead of noun.
٢. ضمير:- هغه کلمه ده چې د اسم په ځاى استعماليږي.Examples:               
                      Ajmal is a student.           ( He is a student.)
                      Khost is a nice province. ( It is a nice province.  

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 3. Adjective:- is a word that  modifies a noun or pronoun.

٣.  صفت :- هغه کلمه ده چې اسم يا ضمير تشريح کوي  لکه.
           
The class is small.               He is an intelligent student.
     
            نوټ:   small    صفت دى او class   تشريح کوي چې اسم دى.
                            Intelligent  صفت دى او he   تشريح کوي چې ضمير دي.

           
  4. Verb:- is a word that tells what the subject does or what happens to the 
                  subject.
    
 ٤.  فعل:- هغه کلمه ده چې دا ښايي چې فاعل څه کوي او يا فاعل ته څه ور پېښيږي    
                  لکه :

            He  writes  his homework.
            They  fix  our car every month.
             She  is  cooking  the  sauce now.
             He  is  very tired today.                
           
   5. Adverb:- is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another
                       adverb.
     
٥. قيد:- هغه کلمه ده چې يو فعل ، صفت او يا بل قيد تشريح کوي لکه:


  Ex:  He  goes  slowly.    قيد دى اودلته فعل يعنې تلل تشريح کوي.      slowly
  The pen is very nice.   تشريح کوي. nice  قيد دى او دلته صفت يعنېvery        
       too  قيد دى او  quicklyچې بل قيد دى تشريح کوي. . He  speaks  too quickly

           

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6. Preposition:- is a word that shows a relationship between nouns 
                            or pronouns.

  ٦.حرف اضافه:- هغه کلمه ده چې د اسمونو او ضميرونو تر منځ ارتباط ښايي.
           
Ex.   In, on, at, under, beside, behind

     The book is under the table. د کتاب او مېز تر منځ ارتباط ښايي.   under
     The ball is on the bed. د ټوپکي او کټ تر منځ ارتباط ښايي.               on

7. Conjunction:- is a word that joins words, sentences, phrases or clauses.

    ٧.  حرف ربط:- هغه کلمه ده چې لغاتونه، جملې، عبارتونه او فقرې سره تړي لکه:

             Book  and  notebook           The pen  or  the pencil
            The car is nice but it is very small.

8.  Article:- is a word that limits a noun.

     ٨.  حرف:- هغه کلمه ده چې يو اسم محدودوي لکه :
           I need a book.                 I need the book.
           He  likes an apple.          He likes the apple.


 9. Interjection:- is a word which shows strong or sudden feeling such
                               as anger, surprise, fear etc.

   ٨. حرف ندا:- هغه کلمه ده چې قوي يا ناڅاپي احساس څرګندوي لکه قهر،
                        حيرانتيا ، وېره يا داسې نور.

            Ex.   Wow! oh, haha, hey  etc.
           
         Wow! my tooth is hurting.
                     Oh! I am wrong.
                     Haha! my friend won the game.
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Nouns are divided into six major classes.

a) Common noun
b) Proper noun
c) Collective noun
d) Abstract noun
e) Concrete noun
f) Compound noun 

a) Common noun:- is the name that is given to improper nouns.

ا) عام اسم :- د يوه غير مشخص اسم نوم ته عام اسم وايي لکه :
          Book,   pen,    ball,    bicycle,     glass,  etc.


Oval: نوټ

نوټ        :- عام اسم بغير د جملې د سر نه په غټو حروفو نه ليکل کيږي.


b) Proper noun:- is the name that is given to a special person, place
                              or thing.

ب) خاص اسم :- هغه نوم دى چې ديوه مشخص شخص ,ځاى او شي لپاره
                         استعماليږي لکه :                                                     Examples

Oval: نوټ         Ehsan,     Samim,   Khost,     Kabul,        Football
نوټ      : دخاص اسم لومړى حرف همېشه په غټو  ليکل کيږي.

c) Collective noun: - is the name which is used for a group or  
                                   collection.

ج) اسم جمع :- هغه نوم دى چې د يوې ډلې يا يوې مجموعې لپاره استعماليږي.

    Examples:      family,    team,    army,    group,     committee

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d) Abstract noun:- is the noun that can be neither seen nor touched.

 د) اسم معنى :- هغه اسم دى چې نه ليدل کيږي او نه لمس کيږي.
  
      Examples:      honesty,      thirst,     love,    truth,      beauty,     fact


e) Concrete noun:- It can be understood by the senses of seeing,    
                                 hearing, touching, smelling and tasting.


ه)  واقعي اسم:- هغه اسم دى چې د ليدلو، اورېدلو، تماس، بوى او خوند په
                         حسونو سره پېژندل کيږي.

Examples:   flower, perfume, rose, soup


f) Compound noun:-is the noun that is made of two or more nouns.

Examples: policeman, bookcase, bedroom, rainbow.

و) مرکب اسم:- هغه اسم دى چې د دوو يا زياتو اسمونو څخه جوړ شوى وي.


There are ten kinds of pronoun.

a) Subject pronoun
            b) Object pronoun
            c) Possessive pronoun
            d) Reflex pronoun
            e) Demonstrative pronoun
            f) Relative pronoun
            g) Interrogative pronoun
            h) Indefinite pronoun
            i) Intensive pronoun
            j) Reciprocal pronoun

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     a) Subject pronoun:- is the pronoun  to which an action refers.
       فاعلي ضمير:- هغه  ضمير دى چې هغې ته عمل راجع کيږي لکه :-
              He, she, it, I, we, you, they

             He   is  working  very  hard.      They speak English well.
           
      b) Object pronoun:-is the pronoun which receives an action and is 
                                           used after verb.
       مفعولي ضمير:- هغه ضمير دى چې  عمل تر ﻻسه کوي او د فعل نه وروسته 
                             استعماليږي لکه:-
                Him, her, it, me, us, you, them
               
                The teacher gave ________ some books.

      c) Possessive pronoun:-is the pronoun which shows ownership or 
           possession. We can’t use noun after possessive pronouns.
        ملکي ضمير:- هغه ضمير دى چې ارتباط او ملکيت ښايي . دهغې نه وروسته اسم
                            نه استعماليږي لکه:-
                His, her, its, mine, ours, yours, theirs
     
                 The bicycle is ___________.

      d) Reflexive pronoun:-shows that the subject performs an action   
                                               and the action refers back to the subject.
       انعکاسي ضمير:- دا ښايي چې فاعل يو عمل اجراءکوي او هغه بېرته فاعل ته راجع 
                                کيږي.    لکه:
                 Himself, herself, itself, myself, ourselves, yourself, themselves

                He bought himself a new bicycle.
                She  saw herself in the mirror.
           

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     e) Demonstrative pronoun:- is the pronoun that calls attention or 
                                                         points out at someone or something.
    اشاروي ضمير:- هغه دى چې يو شي ته پام ور اړوي ياکوم چا يا شي ته اشاره کوي لکه:

                This, that ,these, those
                 C This is my new bicycle.      Look at  thatC  new bicycle.

     f) Relative pronoun:- is the pronoun which combines two clauses.
       ارتباطي ضمير:- هغه دى چې دوې فقرې سره تړي لکه:
                 Who, whom, which, that
           
                  The student is my friend. He is standing
             
                  The student who is standing is my friend.

                             The book is useful. It is full of tenses.
                  The book that is full of tenses is useful.

     g) Interrogative pronoun:- is used in question in order to seek
                                                       information.
        معلوماتي ضمير:- هغه دى چې په سوال کې استعماليږي ددې لپاره چې معلومات تر 
                                 لاسه شي لکه :
            Who, what, when, where, why, which, whose, how
            
Who  is  in  the  class?
            Where  do  you  live?

     h) Indefinite pronoun:- is the pronoun which does not specify a
                                                 particular person, place or thing.

نا معلوم ضمير:- هغه دى چې کوم خاص شخص، ځاي يا شى نه په ګوته کوي لکه:

            Some, several, someone, somewhere, anything, nothing, nowhere etc

            I   like  to  drink  something.کوم شى ندى په ګوته.         
            I   want  to  go  somewhere.کوم ځاي ندى په ګوته.         
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    i) Intensive pronoun:-is the pronoun which gives a special attention    
                                            and emphasis to the subject.
شديد ضمير:- هغه دى چې فاعل ته يوه خاصه توجه او ټينګار ورکوي لکه:
             He himself pushed the car.هغه په خپله موټر ټېله کړه.           
  She herself drove the car. دي پخپله موټر وچلولو.                                  


    j) Reciprocal pronoun:- introduces mutual action or relation  
                                                between nouns or pronouns.

      دوه اړخيز ضمير:- هغه دى چې د اسمونو او ضميرونو په منځ کې دوطرفه عمل يا
                                ارتباط تشريح کوي لکه:
            Each other, one another,

                           Fahim and Nesar  helped  each other.
                           Samim and Jalal pushed one another to the stream.

There are  five common  kinds  of  adjectives.
                                                           
a) Descriptive adjective
            b) Proper adjective
            c) Definite and indefinite adjective
            d) Demonstrative adjective
            e) Possessive adjective

            a)  Descriptive adjective:- modifies a noun or pronoun.
         تشريحي صفت:- هغه دى چې اسم يا ضمير تشريح کوي لکه:
            The bicycle is   nice.  Or    It  is   nice .

            b)  Proper adjective:- modifies only proper noun.
         خاص صفت: صرف خاص اسم تشريح کوي.
            Suliman is from Afghanistan. He is Afghan.
            Junaid is from Pakistan. He is Pakistani.
            Bob is from America. He is American.
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       c) Definite and indefinite adjective:- definite adjective  
                                                 specifies a particular noun. Example the

                  Indefinit adjective:- does not specify a noun. Example a/an
        
معلوم او نا معلوم صفت:- معلوم صفت هغه دى چې يو مشخص اسم تشريح کوي او 
                                     نامعلوم صفت هغه دى چې اسم نه مشحص کوي.

            Definite adjective.     The  book / the student is in the class.
            Indefinite adjective.   A  book / a   student is in the class.

      d) Demonstrative adjective:-explains a noun by calling  
                                                       attention  to them.
   
    اشاروي صفت:- هغه دى چې يو اسم د توجو په جلبولو سره تشريح کوي.

            Example :   This book is very interesting.
                              That pen is my friend’s pen.

      e) Possessive adjective:- shows possession and always comes  
                                                  before noun.

    ملکي صفت:- هغه دى چې ملکيت ښايي او همېشه د اسم نه مخکې راځي.

            Example :  my, your, his, her, their, our, its

                        This is my  motorcycle.           That is his house.
                        Their home is near our home.





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Verbs can be fit into three groups.

a)   Main verb 
b)      Auxiliary verb
c)      Linking verb

a)      Main verb: is the verb that shows an action.

      اصلي فعل:- هغه فعل دى چې يو عمل ښايي ، لکه –

            Ex.       He drives his car to school.
                         They study the book of tenses.


            b) Auxiliary verb: is the verb used to make tenses, forms 
                                             and voices.
     کومکي فعل:- هغه فعل دى چې د زمانې ، حالاتو او غږونو جوړولو لپاره 
                            استعماليږي، لکه-

            Ex.       I am going to the stadium.
                        He was teaching Afghan English Language Center.
                        This book was written two days ago.


            Auxiliary verbs are classified into three classes as bellow.
      کومکي افعال په لاندې درې گروپونو  وېشل کيږي.

            *    To be verbs               such as   ( am, is, are  )
            *    To do verbs               such as   (  do,  does   )
            *    To have verbs            such as   (  have, has  )



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    c) Linking verb: is the verb that shows state of being and is not  
                    usually used in continuous tense without special cases.              
   
     ارتباطي فعل:- هغه فعل دى چې حالت د موجوديت ښايي او اکثره وخت
                          په جاري زمانه کې نه استعماليږي بغير د خاصو حالاتو نه، لکه-

        For example : be, like, need, want, know, look, taste, smell etc.




            In correct: I am liking this car.
            Correct:     I like this car.

            Incorrect:   He is wanting the book.
            Correct:     He wants the book.

            In correct:  The car is looking nice.
            Correct :    The car looks nice.

            Incorrect:   The rose is smelling interesting.
            Correct:     The rose smells interesting.












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Adverbs can be fit into five categories.

            a) Adverb of place
            b) Adverb of time
            c) Adverb of manner
            d) Adverb of frequency
            e) Adverb of degree

     a) Adverb of place:-introduces a place and answers the question 
                                        where.

   قيد مکان يا ځاى:- يو ځاى تشريح کوي او  دwhere  سوال ته ځواب وايي  لکه:
           
here, there, near, down, away  etc.

            Where is Suliman?   He went away.
            Where is the book?  It is here OR there.
            Where are you? I am near my home.

     b) Adverb of time:-introduces  time and answers the question when.

  قيد زمان يا وخت:-  وخت تشريح کوي او دwhen   سوال ته ځواب وايي لکه:

            latelysince, soon , then, yet, early etc.

            When does he come to class? He comes early to class everyday.
            When did he finish his H.W? He finished it very soon.
            When did you eat. I didn’t eat yet.






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     c) Adverb of manner:- introduces how something happens and 
                                  answers the question how.

   قيد  سلوک:- دا تشريح کوي چې يو عمل ځنګه پېښيږي او همېشه دhow  سوال ته  
                      ځواب وايي لکه:
            Carefully, quickly, slowly, quietly, foolishly etc.

            How does he drive his car?   He drives very carefully.
            How does he write the H.W. He writes very beautifully.


      d) Adverb of frequency:- introduces how many times an action                                       
                                    happens and answers the question  how often.

    قيد تکرار يا سرعت:- دا تشريح کوي چې يو عمل څو ځلې پېښيږي اود  How often                                        سوال ته  ځواب وايي  لکه:

            always, sometimes, usually, often, seldom etc.

            How often do you go to your village? I go there once a week.
            How often do you speak Pashto?   I always speak Pashto.


   e) Adverb of degree:- explains the extent of adjective, verb or adverb.

    قيد  درجه:- د يو صفت، فعل يا قيد درجه يا اندازه تشريح کوي. 
                       لکه:
            enough, almost, fairly, completely, very  etc.

            He is  very intelligent.      We  completely finished the exam paper.
            They  almost arrived.        You are fairly fast.



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There are two kinds of prepositions.

                   A) Simple preposition
                   B) Compound preposition

          a) Simple preposition:- is made of  a single word.
     ساده حرف اضافه:- صرف يو لغت وي لکه:
                    in, at, on, to, beside, behind, above etc.

          b) Compound preposition:- is made of two or more words.
      مرکب حرف اضافه:- د دوو يا زياتو لغاتونو څخه جوړشوى وي لکه:

            due to, in front of, across from, next to
           
            The tree is in front of the house.
            Due to the difficult test, we should try hard.
            Suliman’s bicycle is next to the wall.


There are three kinds of conjunctions.
           
            a) Coordinating conjunction
            b) Correlative conjunction
            c) Subordinating conjunction

      a) Coordinating conjunction:-connects words or phrases that are 
                                                             equal or similar in structure.

        برابروونکى حرف ربط:- هغه دى چې داسې کلمې يا عبارتونه سره تړي چې په  
                                           جوړښت کې سره مساوي يا يو شان وي لکه:
            Book and notebook,         father or mother,   He goes and stops.
            Tree or flower,    nice but small,       He speaks fast and clearly.       

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       b) Correlative conjunction:- connects words or phrases but they 
               (paired conjunction)                  are  used in pairs.

    موازي حرف ربط:- هغه دى چې لغاتونه يا عبارتونه سره تړي، خو جوړه استعماليږي.                 
                                 لکه:
      
             Both………and                      whether……….or
            Not only ….but also               neither ………nor
     
     Ex.   Both the car and the truck are here.
            Not only Samim but also Jalal is a student.
            I don’t know whether to go or to stay.
            Neither Fahim nor Nesar is a doctor.


       c) Subordinating or opposite conjunction:- connects two  parts   
                                           of a sentence that are different in structure.
    متضاد حرف اضافه:-  د يوې جملې هغه دوې برخې سره تړي چې په جوړښت                                     کې  سره مختلفې يا متضادې وي.


Examples: because, before, after, if, until, since, unless, only if

            I am sick because I worked very hard.
            He will go before you come here.
            Suliman will meet Belal if he comes to class today.
            You can learn English only if you try hard.





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TENSES

The word tense is taken from a Latin word tempus which means tense.

    د  tenseکلمه د يوې لاتني کلمې tempus  څخه اخيستل شوي ده چې د زمانې      يا وخت په معنا ده.
Tense :- is the modification of an action in a time.
زمانه :- د يو عمل څرګندول په يوه وخت کې د زمانې څخه عبارت ده.

   Actually there are three tenses, present, past and future  
     tense. Each tense is divided into four categories as below.
Organization Chart
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SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

1. Simple present tense:- expresses an activity or situation that 
                                           happens regularly or habitually.

١. حال ساده زمانه :- هغه فعاليت (کار) يا وضيعت (حالت) تشريح کوي چې په                                      منظم ډول يا د عادت په ډول يعنې اکثره وخت پيښيږي.

      د مثبتې جملې جوړښت                                      Affirmative structure   
       
                 Subject      +    verb(first form)      complement  
                      تکميلوونکى    +     د فعل اول حالت      +      فاعل(کارکوونکى)

Examples:        I            drive        a car.
                         We        clean         the   room        (everyday).
                         He         fixes          the   bicycle.
                         She       washes      the   dish.
                         Helal     works       on  computer (every week).


Oval: نوټ


نوټ      :- که چېرې فاعل غايب مفرد وي يعنې (he,she,it, singular noun) وي    
                نو بيا د فعل سره (s) يا   (es)علاوه کيږي صرف په مثبتو جملو کې لکه:

 (washes,fixes,works)      He goes to school every morning.                                           













         د حال ساده زمانې د منفي جملې جوړښت          Negative structure
 
Subject  + do not/does not  + verb(first form)  complement             تکميلوونکى + د فعل اول حالت + منفي کومکي فعل+ فاعل(کارکوونکى)  









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Oval: نوټ
 




نوټ       - که چېرې حال ساده زمانه منفي ته اړوو،نو د (he,she,it,singular  noun) 
                 نه وروسته  does not   او د (I,we,you,they,plural nouns)  نه وروسته  do not                    استعماليږي او د فعل نه s اوes  لېري کيږي  لکه :

                I             do not        drive       a car.
                We         don’t         clean       the   room        everyday.
                He          does not    fix           the   bicycle     every week.
                She        doesn’t      wash       the   dish.
                Helal     doesn’t       work      on  computer every time.
                It           doesn’t       work       well.

      Question structure    دحال ساده زمانې دسواليې جملې جوړښت          

      Do/does + subject + verb(first form) + complement


Oval: نوټ

نوټ    :- که چېرې حال ساده زمانه سواليې ته اړوو نو د (he,she,it,singular noun)                 نه مخکې does او د(I,we,you,they,plural nouns) نه مخکې    do                     استعماليږي او د فعل نه s او es لېري کيږي، لکه مخکنۍ مثبتې جملې                   څنگه په سواليه بدلوو.


       Do           I            drive        a car?
       Does       We        clean       the   room       everyday?
       Does       He         fix            the   bicycle    every week?
       Does       She       wash       the   dish?
       Does       Helal     work      on computer every time?
       Does       it            work      well.










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              منفي سوال:                                                                                             Negative question:
      
           Do/does+’nt + subject + verb(first form) + complement
        
           Don’t          you        drive        a    car?
           Don’t          we         clean       the   room       everyday?
           Doesn’t       he          fix           the   bicycle    every week?
           Doesn’t       she        wash        the   dish?
           Doesn’t       Helal     work       on computer every time?
Oval: نوټ           Doesn’t       it            work       well?

     نوټ:-   که چېرې  په  منفي سواليه کې د  don’t  يا   doesn’t  پوره حالت 
             استعمالوۍ ،په دې حالت کې   not  د فاعل نه وروسته استعماليږي لکه:

           Do          you       not        drive        a    car?
           Do          we         not       clean        the   room       everyday?
           Does       he         not       fix            the   bicycle    every week?
           Does       she        not       wash        the   dish?
           Does       Helal    not       work         on  computer?
           Does       it           not       work         well?

عملي تمرين

     لاندې حال ساده مثبتې جملې  منفي، سوال او منفي سواليې ته په خپلو
     کتابچو کې واړوۍ..
            1. He goes to school everyday.
            2. They play football in the yard.
            3. She cooks dinner on time .
            4. We live in Khost city.
            5. Rafiq and Omaid learn the tenses very well.


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PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

2. Present continuous tense:- Expresses an activity or situation that is in 
                                               progress right now.

٢.حال جاري زمانه:- هغه فعاليت (کار) يا وضيعت (حالت) تشريح کوي چې همدا 
                               اوس جاري وي.







     د مثبتې جملې جوړښت                                     Affirmative structure   
       
              Subject   +   be(first form)   +   verb(ing)      complement  
     تکميلوونکى+    فعل د ing سره +      کومکي فعل+      فاعل(کارکوونکى)




    Ex.       I           am     driving          a car.
                We       are      cleaning       the   room       now.
                He        is        fixing           the   bicycle    now.
                She       is        washing       the   dish.
                Helal    is        working       on  computer now.
                It          is        working        well.
Oval: نوټ 
نوټ      :- په حال جاري زمانه کې کومکي فعل يعنې  (  am,is,are  ) او د فعل 
                سره همېشه (  ing  )  موجود وي.

  د حال جاري زمانې د منفي جملې جوړښت            (Negative structure
                 
            Subject   +      be + not    +    verb(ing)  complement                                 تکميلوونکى +   د فعل اول حالت  + منفي کومکي فعل   + فاعل(کارکوونکى) 


Oval: نوټ

نوټ        :- که چېرې حال جاري زمانه منفي ته اړوو نو د ( is,am,are ) نه وروسته    not                      استعماليږي  لکه :


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                I          am not     driving         a car.
                We      are not     cleaning       the   room       now.
                He        isn’t       fixing            the   bicycle    now.
                They    aren’t     washing        the   dish.
                Helal    isn’t       working       on the  computer.




Oval: نوټ



نوټ     :-که چيرې حال جاري زمانه سواليې ته اړوو نو صرف کومکي افعال يعنې (am,is,are)               د فاعل نه مخکې کيږي  لکه :-
              
            Am      I           driving         a car?
            Are      We       cleaning       the   room       now?
             Is        He        fixing           the   bicycle    now?
             Is        She       washing       the   dish?
             Is        Helal    working      on the computer?

 )        منفي سوال:                                                           (Negative question:
      
            Aren’t      I           driving         a car?
            Aren’t      We       cleaning       the   room       now?
             Isn’t        He        fixing           the   bicycle    now?
             Isn’t        She       washing       the   dish?
             Isn’t        Helal    working      on  computer?
Oval: نوټ 

نوټ       :- دا چې د am not  لنډ حالت نشته نو د هغې په ځاي په منفي سوال   
                  کې   aren’tاستعماليږي.  په پوره حالت کې   not د فاعل نه وروسته  
                 استعماليږي لکه :    Aren’t     I          fixing      the    car?       
            Am      I           not     driving         a car?
            Are      We       not     cleaning       the   room       now?
             Is        He        not     fixing           the   bicycle    now?
             Is        She      not     washing       the   dish?
             Is        Helal    not    working       on the computer?

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عملي تمرين

            لاندې حال جاري جملې، منفي، سواليې او منفي سواليې ته په خپلو 
            کتابچو کې واړوۍ..
            1. He is going to school now.
            2. They are playing football in the yard.
            3. She is cooking dinner now.
            4. We are living in Khost city.
            5. Rafiq and Omaid are learning the tenses very well.
                      
SIMPLE PAST TENSE

3. Simple past tense:- expresses an activity or situation that happened        
                                   in a specific time in the past.

٣. ساده تېره زمانه :- هغه فعاليت (کار) يا وضيعت (حالت) تشريح کوي چې په تېره 
                               زمانه کې په يوه معلوم وخت کې پېښ شوى وي.

   
                  د مثبتې جملې جوړښت                      Affirmative structure
           Subject    +   verb ( second form )      complement     
                    تکميلوونکى    +   د فعل دوهم حالت  +    فاعل(کارکوونکى)    


                 I            drove          a   car             last  Sunday.
                We        cleaned       the   room       yesterday.
                He         fixed           the   bicycle    last  week.
                She        washed       the   dish.
                Mr.Sediq  worked    on  computer 2 days ago.



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Oval: نوټ              Negative examples:                              منفي مثالونه:
                                                                                                    
نوټ       :- د تېرې زمانې په منفي حالت کې صرف د فاعل نه وروسته (did not)                    علاوه کيږي او د فعل دوهم حالت په اول حالت بدليږي لکه :-

                 I          did not     drive         a   car.
                We       didn’t      clean        the   room       yesterday.
                He        did not    fix            the   bicycle    last  week.
                She       didn’t      wash        the   dish.
                Helal    didn’t      work        on    computer last month.

              Question  examples:                            دسواليي مثالونه:
Oval: نوټ                                                                                            
نوټ     :- د تېرې زمانې په سواليې حالت کې (did) د فاعل نه مخته اسعماليږي     
                او د فعل دوهم حالت په اول حالت بدليږي لکه :-

             Did     you           drive       a       car          last Friday?
             Did     we            clean       the    room       yesterday?
             Did     he             fix           the    bicycle    last  week?
             Did     she           wash       the    dish?
             Did     Helal        work       on     computer last day?

منفي سوال:                                                                       Negative question:

             Didn’t     you          drive          a      car          last Friday?
             Didn’t     we            clean       the    room       yesterday?
             Didn’t     he             fix           the    bicycle    last  week?
             Didn’t     she           wash       the    dish?
             Didn’t     Helal        work       on     computer last Friday?


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   *      په پوره حالت کې همېشه  not د فاعل نه وروسته راځي لکه :-

             Did     you       not        drive          a      car?
             Did     we         not       clean       the    room       yesterday?
             Did     he          not       fix           the    bicycle    last  week?
             Did     she         not       wash       the    dish?
             Did     Helal     not       work       on     computer 2 days ago?

عملي تمري

            لاندې تېرې ساده  جملې، منفي، سواليې او منفي سواليې ته په خپلو 
            کتابچو کې واړوۍ..
            1. He  went  to  school  yesterday.
            2. They  played  football  in  the  yard.
            3. She  cooked  dinner  on  time .
            4. We  lived  in  Khost  city.
            5. Rafiq  and  Omaid  learned  the  tenses  very well.
Oval: نوټ                                                                                                                   
نوټ     :- که چېرې په جمله کې   was او  were  موجود وي بياdid    نه                          استعماليږي ، منفي حالت په was not  يا   were not او سواليه په   was                او were  سره جوړيږي لکه :-
  Examples :
               
            +     He     was         a   doctor.
            -       He     was not  a   doctor. Or  (he  wasn’t   a  doctor.)
          +?      Was   he           a   doctor?
           -?      Wasn’t   he   a   doctor?

            +      They    were         teachers.
             -      They    were not   teachers. Or (they  weren’t  teachers.)
           +?      Were    they         teachers.
            -?      Weren’t   they     teachers.
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PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

4. Past continuous tense:- Expresses an activity or situation that was
                                          in progress in the past.

٤.  تېره جاري زمانه :- هغه فعاليت (کار) يا وضيعت (حالت) تشريح کوي چې په 
     تېره زمانه کې جاري وي.







      د مثبتې جملې جوړښت                                  Affirmative structure
       
           Subject   +   be  (past  form)   +   verb (ing)    complement     
        تکميلوونکى  +    فعل  د  ing  سره   +   کومکي فعل   +    فاعل(کارکوونکى)   

                I          was      driving         a      car.
                We      were    cleaning       the   room       yesterday.
                He       was     fixing           the   bicycle    last  week.
                She      was    washing        the   dish.
                Helal   was     working       on    computer.


     I  was  fixing  the  car  when  he  came  to  the  garage.

         زه  په  موټر  لګيا  وم  کله  چې  هغه  راغى.    يعنې کله چې هغه راورسېدو  
         زما کار  جاري  وه .
               
             fixing                    he came
                                                  now 




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   Negative examples:                                                           منفي مثالونه:       
                                                                                                    
                I           wasn’t      driving          a      car.
                We       weren’t    cleaning       the   room       yesterday.
                He        wasn’t     fixing           the   bicycle    last  week.
                She      wasn’t     washing       the   dish.
                Helal    wasn’t     working       on    computer on Friday.

   سواليي مثالونه :                Question examples:                                                
                 Was     I               driving        a      car?
                 Were    we           cleaning       the   room       yesterday?
                 Was      he           fixing           the   bicycle    last  week?
                 Was     she          washing         the   dish?
                 Were    they         working       on    computer?

    Short answers

                 Yes  he  was         or             No  he  wasn’t
                 Yes  they  were    or             No   they   weren’t

   منفي سوال:                                                                    Negative question:
           
                 Wasn’t     I               driving        a      car?
                 Weren’t   they          cleaning       the   room       yesterday?
                                        Wasn’t     he             fixing           the   bicycle    last  week?
    OR

                 Was     he    not         fixing          the   bicycle    last  week?
                 Was     she   not        washing       the   dish?
                 Were   they   not       working       on    computer?                              
                 Were   you    not       fixing           the   bicycle?   

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SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE


5. Simple future tense: - expresses an activity or situation that 
                                       happens after now (in the future).

٥. ساده راتلونکي زمانه :- هغه فعاليت (کار) يا وضيعت (حالت) تشريح کوي چې د 
                                       اوس څخه وروسته (په راتلونکي زمانه کې) پېښږي.


   
       د مثبتې جملې جوړښت                                      Affirmative structure
                                                                                                                   
    Subject    +    will/shall  +     verb ( base form )      complement      
        تکميلوونکى         +   د فعل اساسي حالت  +  کومکي فعل +    فاعل(کارکوونکى)   
   نوټ :- په راتلونکي زمانه کې  (shall) او  (will)دواړه کومکي افعال او په يوه       معنْى دي خو صرف دا چې(shall)  دI  او  weلپاره زياتره استعماليږي او(will)      د نورو ضمايرو او اسمونولپاره لکه :

                I           shall       drive          a   car.
                We       shall       clean          the   room       tomorrow.
                He        will        fix              the   bicycle    next week.
                She       will        wash          the   dish.
                Helal    will        work          on    computer.


      Negative examples:                                                        منفي مثالونه:        

              I           shall not (shan’t)      drive      a   car.
             We        shall not (shan’t)      clean     the room   tomorrow.
              He        will  not  (won’t)       fix        the   bicycle   next  week.
              She       will  not  (won’t)      wash     the   dish.
              Helal    will  not  (won’t)      work     on  computer.



 
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    سواليي مثالونه :                Question examples:                                                
           Shall     I           drive          a   car?
           Shall     we        clean          the   room       tomorrow?
           Will      he         fix              the   bicycle    next week?
           Will      she        wash          the   dish?
           Will     Helal     work          on    computer?

    منفي سواليه:                                                                 Negative question:
                                                                                                                   
           Shan’t     I            drive          a   car?
           Shan’t     we         clean          the   room       tomorrow?
           Won’t     he          fix              the   bicycle    next week?
           Won’t     she        wash          the   dish?
           Won’t     Helal     work          on    computer ?

     يا پوره حالت لکه:-   

           Shall     I        not     drive           a   car?
           Shall     we     not     clean           the   room       tomorrow?
           Will      he      not     fix               the   bicycle    next week?
           Will      she     not     wash           the   dish?
           Will     Helal   not     work          on    computer?

عملي تمرين

            لاندې راتلونکي ساده جملې، منفي، سواليې او منفي سواليې ته په 
            خپلو کتابچو کې واړوۍ.
            1. He will go to school tomorrow.
            2. They will play football in the yard.
            3. She will cook dinner on time .
            4. We shall live in Khost city.
            5. Rafiq and Omaid will learn the tenses very well.

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FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

6. Future continuous tense:- expresses an activity or situation that 
                                              is in progress  in the future.

٦. ساده راتلونکي زمانه :- هغه فعاليت (کار) يا وضيعت (حالت) تشريح کوي چې 
                                        په راتلونکي  وخت کې جاري وي.







             د مثبتې جملې جوړښت                            Affirmative structure
                                                                                                                   
        Subject  +    will/shall  be  +  verb ( ing )      complement     
        تکميلوونکى  +   د فعل جاري حالت  +  کومکي فعل +  فاعل(کارکوونکى)       


                I           shall    be    driving          a   car.
                We       shall    be    cleaning          the   room       tomorrow.
                He        will     be    fixing              the   bicycle    next week.
                She       will     be    washing          the   dish.
                Helal    will      be    working          on    computer.

  
   He   will   be   fixing  the  car  when  you  come  to  the  garage.

        هغه به په موټرلگيا وي کله چې ته راشې. يعنې کله چې ته راورسېږې  دده      
        کار به جاري وي.



                   
                                                fixing              you come
                                        now




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     Negative examples:                                                            منفي مثالونه:     

           I           shan’t        be       driving          a   car.
           We       shall not    be       cleaning          the   room       tomorrow.
           He        won’t  be   fixing  the   bicycle    next week.
           She       will not     be       washing          the   dish.
           Helal     won’t       be       working          on    computer.


     Question  examples:                                                      سواليې مثالونه:         
       Shall         I           be    driving          a   car?
       Shall         We       be    cleaning          the   room       tomorrow?
       Will          He        be    fixing              the   bicycle    next week?
       Will          She       be    washing          the   dish?
       Will          Helal    be    working          on    computer?

     منفي سواليه:                                                                 Negative question:

       Shan’t          I           be    driving          a   car?
       Shan’t          We       be    cleaning          the   room       tomorrow?
       Won’t          He        be    fixing              the   bicycle    next week?

  OR     
      
        Will        She     not    be    washing          the   dish?
        Will       Helal   not   be    working          on    computer?

عملي تمرين

            لاندې راتلونکي جاري زمانې جملې، منفي، سواليې او منفي سواليې ته په
            خپلو کتابچو کې واړوۍ .         
 1. He will be going to school.                                                        
            2. They will be playing football in the yard.
            3. She will be cooking dinner on time .
            4. We will be living in Khost city.
            5. Rafiq and Omaid will be learning the tenses very well.









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PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

7.Present perfect tense:- Expresses an activity or situation that happened  
                                       at an unspecific time in the past.

٧.ماضي قريبه زمانه يا تېره نږدې زمانه:- هغه فعاليت (کار) يا وضيعت (حالت) تشريح 
                          کوي چې په تېره زمانه کې په نا معلوم وخت کې پېښ شوى وي.







)      د مثبتې جملې جوړښت                            Affirmative structure ( 
       
            Subject   + have/has   +   verb(p.p. form)      complement   
         تکميلوونکى+  د فعل دريم حالت  +  کومکي فعل+   فاعل(کارکوونکى)

Examples:
                        I           have     driven            a car.
                        We       have     cleaned          the   room.
                        They     has       fixed              the   bicycle.
                        She       has       washed          the   dish.
                        Helal    has       worked          on  computer.

نوټ     :- په منفي حالت کې د have  يا has   نه وروسته د  not کلمه علاوه کوو                  لکه:-
                 I          have not    driven            a car.
                We       haven’t      cleaned          the   room.
                He        has not      fixed              the   bicycle.
                She       hasn’t       washed          the   dish.
                Helal    hasn’t        worked          on  computer.



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Oval: نوټ

 نوټ    :- د ماضي قريبې زمانې په سواليې حالت کې صرف has  يا  haveد جملې  
                په سر کې استعماليږي لکه :-                    
        Have          you      driven            a car?
        Have          we        cleaned          the   room?
        Has            he        fixed              the   bicycle?
        Has            she       washed          the   dish?
        Has            Helal   worked          on  computer?


منفي سوال:                   Negative question:                                
   
        Havn’t        you      driven            a car?
        Haven’t      we        cleaned          the   room?
        Hasn’t        he         fixed              the   bicycle?
        Hasn’t        she       washed          the   dish?
  
   *     په پوره حالت همېشه  not د فاعل نه وروسته راځي لکه :-
      

        Have        I          not      driven            a car?
        Have        we       not      cleaned          the   room?
        Has          he        not      fixed              the   bicycle?
        Has          she       not      washed          the   dish?
        Has          Helal    not     worked          on  computer?

عملي تمرين


            لاندې ماضي قريبې جملې، منفي، سواليې او منفي سواليې ته په خپلو 
            کتابچو کې واړوۍ .
            1. He has gone to school .
            2. They have played football in the yard.
            3. She has cooked dinner .
            4. We have lived in Khost city.
            5. Rafiq and Omaid have learned the tenses very well.

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Oval: نوټ

نوټ         :- ماضي قريبه زمانه درې حالتونه لري چې په لاندې ډول په تفصيل 
                   سره تشريح کيږي.

         ١. ځينې وخت عمل مکمل شوى وي.
         ٢. ځينې وخت عمل څو ځلې تکرار شوى وي.
         ٣. ځينې وخت عمل تر اوسه جاري وي.

Three forms of present perfect tense

     In present perfect tense the activity is occurred in three kind of       
     situations as bellow.

            A. With already the action is completed.
            B. With several times, a couple of times 3 times or etc. the  
                 action is repeated.
            C. With since and for the action is continuous. 

A. Present perfect tense with (already) shows an action that began and    
     completed in the past.

١. په   already سره هغه عمل ښايي چې په نا معلوم وخت کې شروع او مکمل 
    شوى  وي  لکه :-
                Mr.Nazif  has already     written  the book of tenses.
                We       have    already     cleaned          the   room.
                He        has      already     fixed              the   bicycle.
                She       has      already     washed          the   dish.
                Helal    has      already     worked          on  computer.




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          I  have already cleaned the room.
Diagram

        Cleaning time                  finished time                           now
           Past                                                                                  future





B. Present perfect tense with words such as (several times, many times, 
        a couple of times, 2,3 times) shows the repetition of an action.

٢. ماضي قريبه زمانه په پورتنيو کلمو سره هغه عمل تشريح کوي چې په تېره زمانه  
    کې څو ځلې تکرار شوى وي لکه :-
                I           have     driven            a car         many times.
                We       have     cleaned          the    room    2 times.
                He        has       fixed              the    bicycle    several times.
                She       has       washed          the    dish     a couple of times.
                Helal    has       worked          on     computer   4 times.

            He has fixed the car several times.
  Diagram

              Fixing     fixing             fixing           fixing              now

 




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C. Present perfect tense with ( since and for )shows an action that began 
                                                   in the past and continues to the present.

٣. ماضي قريبه زمانه په  (since)او  (for)سره هغه عمل تشريح کوي چې په تېره زمانه کې شروع او تر اوسه جاري وي .

Examples.

           He        has       fixed              the   bicycle   since 2:00.
           She       has       washed          the   dish    for 5 minutes.
           Mr.Sharif  has  worked in Afghan course   since 1995.




           We       have     cleaned          the   room   for ten minutes.
 
              
                cleaning                  room                     now



لنډ مطلب:-

 *          که په کومه جمله کې ( already )موجود وي عمل ختم شوى دى.
*           که په کومه جمله کې ( several times, many times etc. ) موجود وي  
             عمل تکرار شوى دى.
       *   که په کومه جمله کې(since) يا(for)  موجود وي عمل تر اوسه جاري دى.
      


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PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE

8. Present perfect progressive tense:- expresses the duration  of  an
                                               activity that is in progress until now.

٨.ماضي قريبه جاري زمانه :- د يوه عمل د وخت موده تشريح کوي چې تر اوسه 
                                          پورې جاري وي.

        د مثبتې جملې جوړښت                                    Affirmative structure  
       
       Subject   +   have/has  +   been   +   verb +ing      complement   
        تکميلوونکى+  فعل د(ing)  سره + کومکي فعل +  کومکي فعل + فاعل(کارکوونکى)

   Ex:        I          have    been  driving            a car  for  a  long  time.
                We       have    been  cleaning         the   room  since  2:00.
                He        has      been  fixing             the   bicycle.
                She       has      been  washing         the   dish.
                Mr.Nekmal  has  been  teaching at  Shaikh Zayed university.        


        Negative examples:-

                I           have not    been  driving          a car  for  a long time.
                We       haven’t     been  cleaning         the   room  since 1:00.
                He        hasn’t       been  fixing             the   bicycle.

       Question examples:-
             
                Have   you       been   driving             a car ?
                Have   they      been   cleaning          the   room ?
                Has     he         been   fixing             the   bicycle ?
                Has     she       been    washing         the   dish ?


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منفي سواليه:                                    Negative question:

                Haven’t   you       been  driving             a car  for one year?
                Haven’t   they      been   cleaning          the   room  since 2:00?
                Hasn’t     he         been   fixing             the   bicycle ?
                Hasn’t     she       been    washing         the   dish ?

       يا پوره حالت لکه :-

                Have   you    not    been  driving             a car ?
                Have   they   not    been   cleaning          the   room ?
                Has     he      not    been   fixing             the   bicycle ?
                Has     she     not   been    washing         the   dish ?

عملي تمرين


            لاندې ماضي قريبې جاري جملې، منفي، سواليې او منفي سواليې ته په 
            خپلو کتابچو کې واړوۍ..
            1. He has been going to school for 2 years.
            2. They have been playing football in the yard since 2:00.
            3. She has been cooking dinner for two hours.
            4. Zahidullah have been living in Khost city.
            5. Rafiq and Omaid have been learning the tenses very well.








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PAST PERFECT TENSE

9. Past perfect tense :- Expresses an activity or situation that  was 
                                    completed before another action in the past.

٩ .  ماضي بعيده زمانه يا تېره لرې زمانه :-  هغه فعاليت (کار) يا وضيعت (حالت) 
                         تشريح کوي چې په تېر وخت کې د يوه بل عمل نه مخکې 
                         مکمل شوى وي.

         د مثبتې جملې جوړښت                              Affirmative structure
       
         Subject    +    had    +     verb (third form)      complement     
          تکميلوونکى  +   د فعل دريم حالت   +   کومکي فعل   +    فاعل(کارکوونکى)   
               
                I            had      driven          a      car.
                We       had       cleaned       the   room.
                He        had       fixed           the   bicycle.
                She       had      washed        the   dish.
                Helal    had       worked       on    computer.

  I  had  fixed  the  car  when  he  came  to  the  garage.

         ما   موټر  جوړ کړى وو  کله  چې  هغه  راغى.    يعنې کله چې هغه راورسېدو،  
         زما کار  مکمل شوى  وه .

                               
                fixing                    he came
                                                  now 


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   Negative examples:                                                        منفي مثالونه: 
             
                I           hadn’t      driven          a      car.
                We       hadn’t      cleaned       the   room .
                He        hadn’t      fixed           the   bicycle.
                She      hadn’t      washed       the   dish.
                Helal    hadn’t      worked       on    computer.

    سواليې مثالونه :                Question examples:                                                
              Had           you            driven          a       car?
              Had           we             cleaned       the     room?
              Had            he              fixed           the    bicycle?
              Had            she            washed       the    dish?
              Had            Helal         worked       on     computer?


     Short answers

            Yes  he  had.         or             No   he      hadn’t.
            Yes  they  had.      or             No   they   hadn’t.

    منفي سواليه:                                                                 Negative question:

              Hadn’t           you           driven          a       car?
              Hadn’t           we             cleaned       the     room?

      OR
      
              Had      he        not         fixed           the    bicycle?
              Had      she       not        washed       the    dish?
              Had      Helal    not        worked       on     computer?


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عملي تمرين

            لاندې ماضي بعيدې جملې، منفي، سواليې او منفي سواليې ته په     
            خپلو کتابچو کې واړوۍ.
            1. He had gone to school.
            2. They had played football in the yard.
            3. She had cooked dinner on time.
            4. We had lived in Khost city.
            5. Farhad and Basir had attended the E. course together.


PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE

10. Past perfect progressive tense: - Expresses an activity or situation 
                        that was  in  progress  before another action in the past.

١٠ .    ماضي بعيده جاري زمانه يا تېره لرې جاري زمانه :-  هغه فعاليت (کار) يا 
        وضيعت (حالت)  تشريح کوي چې په  تېره زمانه کې  د يوه بل عمل نه 
        مخکې  جاري وي.







              د مثبتې جملې جوړښت                          Affirmative structure
       
         Subject  +  had   +  been  +   verb ( ing )      complement     
              تکميلوونکى  +     فعل ing  سره   +   کومکي فعل  +   فاعل(کارکوونکى)   
             
                I           had    been    driving          a      car.
                We       had    been    cleaning       the   room.
                He        had    been    fixing           the   bicycle.
                She       had    been   washing        the   dish.
                Atiqullah had been   working  very hard in this E. center.
                
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   I   had   been   fixing  the  car  when  he  came  to  the  garage.

        زه  په  موټر  لګيا شوي وم کله چې هغه راغى.    يعنې کله چې هغه راورسېدو  
        تر هغې پورې زه په موټر لګيا وم.
                   
                   fixing                    he came
                                                                                  now




    Negative examples:                                                                منفي مثالونه: 

                I           hadn’t     been    driving          a      car.
                We       hadn’t     been    cleaning       the   room .
                He        hadn’t     been    fixing           the   bicycle.
                She      hadn’t      been   washing        the   dish.
                Helal    hadn’t     been    working       on    computer.


    سواليې مثالونه :                Question examples:                                                
              Had           you      been      driving          a       car?
              Had           we       been      cleaning       the     room?
              Had            he       been       fixing           the    bicycle?
              Had            she      been      washing       the    dish?
              Had            Helal   been      working       on     computer?


     Short answers

            Yes, he  had         or             No,   he      hadn’t
            Yes, they  had      or             No,   they   hadn’t

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     منفي سواليه:                                                                Negative question:
             
              Hadn’t       you      been      driving          a       car?
              Hadn’t       we       been      cleaning       the     room ?
              Hadn’t       he       been       fixing           the    bicycle?
     OR        
              Had     she      not   been      washing       the    dish?
              Had     Helal   not   been      working       on     computer?






عملي تمرين

            لاندې ماضي بعيدې جاري  جملې، منفي، سواليې او منفي سواليې                       ته په خپلو  کتابچو کې واړوۍ.

            1. He had been going to school.
            2. They had been playing football in the yard.
            3. She had been cooking dinner.
            4. Sharifullah had been living in Khost city.
            5. Rafiq and Omaid had been learning the tenses very well.

                












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FUTURE PERFECT TENSE


11. Future perfect tense:- Expresses an activity or situation that  is 
                                     completed before another action in the future.

١١ .  راتلونکي مکمله زمانه :-  هغه فعاليت (کار) يا وضيعت (حالت) تشريح کوي   
        چې  په راتلونکي زمانه کې د يوه بل عمل نه مخکې  مکمل شوى وي.

                I        will     have        driven            a car.
                We    will     have        cleaned          the   room.
                He     will     have        fixed              the   bicycle.
                She    will     have       washed           the   dish.
                Helal  will    have        worked          on  computer.


    He    will  have   fixed  the  car  when  you  come  to  the  garage.

      هغه به موټرجوړکړى وي کله چې ته راشې. يعنې کله چې ته راورسېږې  هغه      
      به کار مکمل کړى وي.




                                                    fixing                    you come
                                      now






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      Negative examples:                                                        منفي مثالونه:        

                I          won’t      have        driven            a car.
                We      won’t     have        cleaned          the   room.
                He       won’t     have        fixed              the   bicycle.
                She      won’t     have       washed           the   dish.
                Helal   won’t    have        worked          on  computer.


     سواليې مثالونه :                Question examples:                                               
               Will      you       have          driven            a  car?
               Will      we         have         cleaned          the   room?
               Will      he          have         fixed              the   bicycle?
               Will      she        have         washed           the   dish?
               Will      Helal     have         worked           on    computer?

       منفي سواليه:     Negative question:                                                              

               Won’t       you        have          driven            a  car?
               Won’t       we         have          cleaned          the   room?
               Won’t       he          have          fixed              the   bicycle?
               Won’t       she         have         washed           the   dish?
               Won’t       Helal     have          worked          on    computer?

عملي تمرين

            لاندې راتلونکي مکملې زمانې جملې، منفي، سواليې او منفي سواليې ته
             په خپلو کتابچو کې واړوۍ.
            1. He will have gone to school next week.
            2. They will have played football in the yard.
            3. She will have cooked dinner on time .
            4. We will have lived in Khost city.
            5. Rafiq and Omaid will have learned the tenses very well.

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FUTURE PERFECT PRORESSIVE TENSE
      
12. Future perfect progressive tense:- Expresses an activity or situation  
                            that is in progress before another action in the future.

١٢.  راتلونکي مکمله جاري زمانه :-  هغه فعاليت (کار) يا وضيعت (حالت) تشريح 
              کوي چې په راتلونکي زمانه کې د يوه بل عمل نه مخکې  جاري وي.

                I        will     have    been      driving            a car.
                We    will     have    been     cleaning          the   room.
                He     will     have    been     fixing              the   bicycle.
                She    will     have    been     washing           the   dish.
                Helal  will    have    been     working          on  computer.



     He will have been fixing the car when you come to the garage.

       هغه به په موټرجوړولو لګيا شوي وي کله چې ته راشې. يعنې کله چې ته
        راورسېږې دهغه کار به جاري وي.



         
                                               fixing             you come                  
                                 now



  



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       Negative examples:                                                         منفي مثالونه:
      
           I        won’t     have    been      driving            a car.
           We    won’t     have    been     cleaning          the   room.
           He     won’t     have    been     fixing              the   bicycle.
           She    won’t     have    been     washing           the   dish.
           Helal  won’t    have    been     working          on  computer.

   سواليې مثالونه :                Question examples:                                        

      Will          you       have    been      driving            a car?
      Will          we        have    been     cleaning          the   room?
      Will          he         have    been     fixing              the   bicycle?
      Will          she        have    been     washing           the   dish?
      Will          Helal     have    been     working          on  computer?

    منفي سواليه:     Negative question:                                                                                 
      Won’t          you       have    been      driving            a car?
      Won’t          we        have    been     cleaning          the   room?
      Won’t          he         have    been     fixing              the   bicycle?
      Won’t          she        have    been     washing           the   dish?
      Won’t          Helal     have    been     working          on  computer?
عملي تمرين

    لاندې راتلونکي مکملې جاري زمانې جملې، منفي، سواليې او منفي سواليې          ته  په خپلو کتابچو کې واړوۍ.
            1. He will have been going to school next week.
            2. They will have been playing football in the yard.
            3. She will have been cooking dinner.           
            4. Mr.Mamoor will have been teaching intensive class.
            5. Rafiq and Omaid will have been learning the tenses very well.

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Bellow is the summery of one example from each tense.



     1.    He helps poor people every time.        (simple present tense)
    
2.        He is helping poor people now.          (present continuous tense)

3.        He helped poor people last week.       (simple past tense)

4.        He  was  helping poor people.             (past continuous tense)

5.        He will help poor people next month.(simple future tense)

6.        He will be helping them next year.     (future continuous tense)

7.        He has helped them many times.        (present perfect)

8.        He has been helping them since 1992.(present perf.progressive)

9.        He had helped poor people.                (past perfect tense)

10.    He had been helping them.                 (past perfect progressive)

11.    He will have helped poor people.       (future perfect tense)

12.    He will have been helping them.         (future perfect progressive)


*     Practice making many examples from yourselves in each tense by looking at the above samples.


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PLURALS

     We have two kinds of plurals.

            a.   Regular plural:-  the noun that adds s or es in plural form.
            b.   Irregular plural:- the noun that doesn’t have any rule for
                                              plural form.

     ا. قاعده لرونکى جمع:- هغه جمعې ته وايي چې په آخر د اسم کې
       علاوه کيږي. es يا  s                                          
 } ب. بې قاعدې جمع:-  هغه جمعې ته وايي چې د جمعې لپاره کومه طريقه    
                                        نه لري.
   نوټ:- د هغه اسمونو په آخر کې چې لاندې شپږ آوازونه موجود وي، د جمع په                     حالت کې es   علاوه کېږي لکه په لاندې مثالونو کې.

            / s /       bus  buses  –  glass, glasses
            /sh/      brush, brushes  –  dish, dishes
            /ch/      bench, benches  –  watch, watches  
            / x /      box, boxes  –  fox, foxes
            / z /      quiz, quizzes  –  buzz, buzzes  
            / o /      tomato, tomatoes  –  potato, potatoes

   نوټ:- که چېرې د کوم اسم په آخر کې د  o نه مخکې د  vowelحرف راشي،  
              بيا د جمع په حالت کې صرف  s علاوه کيږي  لکه:-
                 Radio, radios  –  studio, studios



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   نوټ:- د هغې اسمونو په آخر کې چې پورتني شپږ آوازنونه نه وي راغلې،
             د جمع په حالت کې صرف s   علاوه کيږي، خو پدي حالت کې که
             چېرې د اسم د آخر کې د /p/-/t/-/k/-/f/-/th/   آوازنه موجود وي بيا
              s په س  تلفظ کيږي او که نه په ز   تلفظ کيږي لکه:-

           
            / p /  Map, maps
            / t /   Cat, cats
            / k /  Book, books
            / f /   Roof, roofs
            / th /  Month, months
        دلته s په س تلفظ کيږي.
    
 او په لاندې مثالونو کې s   په ز تلفظ کيږي لکه:-

 Pen, pens – pencil, pencils – fan, fans – car, cars


              









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Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives


       An adjective has three degrees.

            1.   Positive form ساده حالت                      -        
            2.   Comparative formمقايسوي حالت                 -
            3.   Superlative formعالي حالت                      -   

     1.    Positive form is the simple form of adjective used to explain a 
                                      noun or pronoun.

      مثبت يا ساده حالت هغه دى چې يو اسم يا ضمير په عادي ډول تشريح کوي.        

            Examples:-      The class is small.
                                    The tree is tall.
                                    My pen is big.
   
      2.   Comparative form is the form used to show the higher or 
                                                 lower degree or quality of adjective.
           
*    We use comparative form to compare two things or groups.

    مقايسوي حالت هغه حالت دى چې د صفت لوړه يا ټيټه درجه يا خواص ښايي.
           
Examples:-      This class is smaller than that class.
                                    The tree is taller than the wall.
                                    My pen is bigger than your pen.
                                    Corel draw is more interesting the excel.
                                    He is more intelligent than his brother.

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       *   How to change adjective to comparative form.


            a.    With one syllable adjectives we add er at the end. 
                        Tall-taller    clean-cleaner     sad-sader

            b.    The adjectives that end in one vowel and one consonant,
                   double the last consonant and add er.
                        Big-biger      fat-fater             hot-hoter

            c.    With two syllable adjectives ending in y, change y into i and   
                   add er.
                        Heavy-heavier   pretty-prettier  busy-busier

            d.    With more than one syllable adjectives, we add more at the 
                   beginning of adjective.
                     Excellent-more excellent    interesting-more interesting

            e.    Some two syllable adjectives can take either er or more in 
                   comparative form.
                        Polite-politer or more polite
                        Clever-cleverer or more clever
                        Friendly-friendlier or more friendly
                    Other examples are pleasant, common, simple, quiet
                        Handsome, cruel, narrow  etc.

            f.    A few adjectives have irregular comparative forms.
                        Good-better         bad-worse        far-farther




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     3.    Superlative form is the form used to show the highest or 
                                           lowest degree or quality of adjective.
      عالي حالت هغه حالت دى چې د صفت لوړترينه يا ټيټ ترينه درجه يا
      خواص ښايي.
   *  We use superlative form to compare one thing or group with many.

       Examples:-         Naimullah is tallest  in the village.
                                  Intensive class is most interesting in the E. course.


   *  How to change adjective to superlative form.

            a.    With one syllable adjectives we add est at the end. 
                        Tall-tallest    clean-cleanest     sad-sadest

            b.    The adjectives that end in one vowel and one consonant,
                   double the last consonant and add est.
                        Big-bigest      fat-fatest             hot-hotest

            c.    With two syllable adjectives ending in y, change y into i and   
                   add est.  Heavy-heaviest  /  pretty-prettiest / busy-busiest

            d.    With more than one syllable adjectives, we add most at the 
                   beginning of adjective.
                   Excellent-most excellent   /   interesting-most interesting

            e.     Some two syllable adjectives can take either est or most in 
                    superlative form.
                        Polite-politest or most polite
                        Clever-cleverest or most clever
                        Friendly-friendliest or most friendly
                   Other examples are pleasant, common, simple, quiet
                        Handsome, cruel, narrow  etc.

             f.    A few adjectives have irregular superlative forms.
                        Good-best         bad-worst        far-farthest

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REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS

1.   Regular verb:- is the verb that has a special rule for second and 
                                third forms. ( Both end with ed )

           The ed has three kinds of pronunciation.  /t/    /d/    /ed/

      1. ed = /t/   If there is one of the following six sounds at the end  
                        of the verb, the ed is pronounced as  /t/ sound.

                  /s/         missed             sliced               kissed
                                      /t/                                      /t/                                        /t/            
                  /sh/       washed            brushed           finished

                  /ch/      watched          matched          searched

                  /x/        fixed                mixed              relaxed

                  /p/        slapped            hoped              slipped
           
                  /k/        walked                        kicked             worked

                  /f/         laughed               /t/                 coughed         
     
      2. ed = /ed/   If there is  /t/ or /d/ sound at the end of a verb,
                           ed  is pronounced as /ed/ sound.

                  Needed           attended          added
                           /ed/                 /ed/                            /ed/
                  Wanted           graduated        started


      3. ed = /d/    If there is any of the sounds without the above 9                              sounds at the end of a verb, ed is pronounced as /d/.                    
                  called               served              cleaned           
                        /d/                                            /d/                                          /d/  

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2.   Irregular verb:-  is the verb that doesn’t have any rule for the                                     second and third form. They are stated in six                                    groups.

      a.         In some, all three forms are the same.

                  Fit        fit        fit
                  Cut      cut       cut

      b.         In some, all three forms are different.
     
                  See      saw      seen
                  Write   wrote   written

      c.         In some, the last two forms are the same, the first is                          different.

                  Sell      sold     sold
                  Make   made   made

      d.         In some, the first and third forms are the same.

                  Come               came                come
                  Become           became            become

      f.          In some, the spell is the same but pronunciation is 
                  different.

                  Read    read     read

      g.         In some, the second and third forms take ught.

                        Buy     bought             bought
                        Fight    fought             fought

     
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CLAUSE فقره -

     Clause: -is a group of words which has subject and verb.

      فقره :- يو گروپ د لغاتونو چې فاعل او فعل ولري فقره بلل کيږي.

              Note:-   Clause  is  divided  into  two  groups. Main clause and   
                            subordinate clause.

     Main clause (independent clause):- is the clause which has  
                                        complete meaning without another clause.
       
    اصلي فقره يا مستقله فقره:- هغه ده چې بغير د بلې فقرې نه پخپله پوره معنى  
                                           ولري لکه:-

                    I   came here.           Or         I   go  to  Kabul.

      Subordinate clause (dependant clause):-is the clause which does  
                            not have complete meaning. It needs another clause.

    فرعي فقره يا تړلي فقره:- هغه ده چې پخپله پوره معنى نه لري ، بلې فقرې ته 
                                        ضرورت لري  لکه:-
        When I came here, ………………….
        If  I  go  to  Kabul, ……………………. .
       
        While  he was driving the bus,   he met  his friend.
          subordinate clause (incomplete meaning)      main clause (complete meaning)

        There was no one in class   when I came at 1:00pm yesterday.
            main clause (complete meaning)                 subordinate clause (incomplete meaning)

      Phrase:- is a group of related words that does not have subject and    
                     verb.
    عبارت:-   يو گروپ د ارتباتي لغاتونو دى چې فاعل او فعل و نلري.
      Examples:   a big car,  on the table,  going to school,  

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                                       عبارتي فعل                             PHRASAL VERB  -

            Verb plus preposition which has a special meaning is called                  
            phrasal verb.

      فعل جمع حرف اضافه کوم چې يوه خاصه معنى ولري، عبارتي فعل بلل کيږي.

            Note:- Phrasal verbs are divided into two groups.
                       
                 a. separable phrasal verb    جدا کېدونکي عبارتي افعال     - 
                 b. inseparable phrasal verb   نه جدا کېدونکي عبارتي افعال - 
            a. Separable phrasal verbs:- are the verbs that can be separated
                 into two parts, we can use noun or pronoun between verb
                 and preposition.
     جدا کېدونکي عبارتي افعال هغه دي چې  جدا کېداي شي ، د فعل
           اوحرف اضافه په منځ کې اسم يا ضمير استعمالولاي شو لکه:-
                       
                        Fill in the blanks.              Fill the blanks in.
                        Bring back my bicycle.     Bring it back.
                        Cheer up the baby.            Cheer the baby up.

            b. Inseparable phrasal verbs:- are the verbs which can not be 
                 separated. Verb and preposition should be used side by side.

    نه جدا کېدونکي عبارتي افعال هغه دي چې  جدا کېداي نشي،  فعل
           اوحرف اضافه بايد څنگ په څنگ استعمال شي لکه:-

            Act up            The children acted up yesterday.
            Break down    My car broke down on the way.
            Drop out         I want to drop out of school.

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ACTIVE VOICE AND PASSIVE VOICE

Active voice: - is the sentence in which the subject performs an action.

      فعال غږ:- هغه جمله ده چې په هغې کې فاعل يو عمل اجرا کوي لکه:-
           
            They clean the kitchen.
     نوټ:- پدې جمله کې فاعل they   دى چې پاکول کوي.

 Passive voice: - is the sentence in which the subject receives an action            
                           or something is happened to the subject.

      غير فعال غږ:- هغه جمله ده چې په هغې کې فاعل عمل تر لاسه کوي يا
                              په هغې باندې کار کيږي (فاعل پخپله غير فعال وي) لکه:-

            They are given some gifts.
            The room is painted.

         نوټ:- په پورته جمله کې  they  چې فاعل دى ، پخپله فعاليت نه کوي
                   بلکې بل څوک هغې ته فعاليت کوي.
    Here are the steps how to change active into passive.

            1. The object of active becomes the subject of passive.
            2. Use the tense formula.
            3. The subject of active becomes the by phrase of passive.

  Example:-
           
            He                  cleans                 the   room.
             sub                    verb                        obj                            


            The   room        is cleaned        by    him.
                  sub                        be1 + v3                by phrase


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                 Active                                      Passive

             Tense                                                                            Formula
            Simple present tense                                  ( be1 + V3 )
  He fixes the car everyday.               The car is fixed by him everyday.
        
Present continuous tense                   ( be1 +being+ V3 )
  He is fixing the car at home.      The car is being fixed at home by him.
        
Simple past tense                 ( be2 + V3 )
  He fixed the car.                              The car was fixed by him.
        
Past continuous tense            ( be2 + being+V3 )
  He was fixing the car.                     The car was being fixed by him.
       
Simple future tense          ( will be + V3 )
  He will fix the car.                           The car will be fixed by him.
           
Present perfect tense             ( have/has been + V3 )
  He has fixed the car.                        The car has been fixed by him.
      
Past perfect tense                ( had been + V3 )
  He had fixed the car.                        The car had been fixed by him.
      
Future perfect tense              ( will+have+been + V3 )
  He will have fixed the car.            The car will have been fixed by him.

  Note:- In passive voice, for each tense, the third form of verb should 
              be used.

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EXERCISES

       Change the following sentences into passive according to the  
       formulas and examples.

1.      He washes the bicycle.
2.      They are playing football in the ground.
3.      We cleaned the living room yesterday.
4.      Samim was writing homework.
5.      You will study English in AF.E.L center.
6.      Jalal has learned computer.
7.      She had cooked dinner.
8.      Suliman will have recited the Holy Quran.
9.      He eats lunch everyday.
10.  She was helping the patients.
11.  The students studied the key of tenses.
12.  Nesar was drinking the milk tea.
13.  They will build a new house.
14.  Fahim has finished the book of tenses.
15.  I had cancelled the plan.
16.  Rafiq and Omaid were watching the game.
17.  The doctor has examined me yesterday.
18.  The children have broken the big glass.
19.  We will hang a nice picture on the wall.
20.  He doesn’t help me.
21.  The teacher hired his friend for the new job.
22.  I had found some money on the road.
23.  He was selling his old car.
24.  They are trying the sauce now.
25.  The mechanic will have fixed the generator. 
 


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Quoted speech   and      Reported speech

         Quoted speech (direct speech):- is to repeat or restate the exact  
                           words said or written by someone.

نقل شوي يا (مستقيمه) خبره:- د يو چا خبره په دقيق ډول(بغير د کوم تغير  
                   څخه) بل چا ته نقل کولو ته وايي.

            Note:- In quoted speech we use quotation marks.  “   ”

        Reported speech (indirect speech):- is to restate or reproduce just 
                    the idea of someone’s words.(not all the exact words)

راپورشوي يا ( غيرمستقيمه) خبره:- د يو چا د خبرو صرف د مطلب بيانولو
                                         ته وايي. ( نه لغت په لغت)

  Note: - In reported speech we do not use quotation marks.

               In reported speech (pronouns, tense and time expression
                                may be changed as in the following examples.


(Simple present changes to simple past tense)

Samim said “I go to school.”         
Samim said that he went to school.

(Present continuous changes to past continuous)

Fahim said “we are playing the game now”.
Fahim said that they were playing the game that time.
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(Simple past tense changes to past perfect)

Jalal said “you went to Kabul last week”.
Jalal said that I had gone to Kabul the previous week.

(Past continuous changes to past perfect continuous)

Nesar said “they were studying English at home”.
Nesar said that you had been studying E. at home.

(Preset perfect changes to past perfect)

Helal said “he has taught his class”.
Helal said that you had taught your class.

(will changes to would)

Omaid said “she will cook lunch next week”.
Omaid said that you would cook lunch the following week.

Suliman said “I can drive a car”.
Suliman said that he could drive a car.

     Can changes to could                             shall changes to should
     Must changes to had to                        may changes to might
     Should  (no change)                            ought to  (no change)







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Quoted speech   and      Reported speech


Note: - In immediate report the tense and time expression are not changed.  
             Only pronouns are changed as bellow.

Belal said “I am swimming in the pool”.
Belal said that he is swimming in the pool.(tense no change)

Samim said “We went to Afghan E.L. center on time yesterday”.
Samim said that they went to A.E.L.C on time yesterday.

Fahim said “My father was working in the hospital”
F. said that his father was working in the hospital. (tense no change)

Note:- If the main verb is first form for example say, again tense is not 
             changed, only pronouns are changed.

Nesar says “I  wake up at  4:00 every morning”.
N. says that he wakes up at 4:00 every morning.  (tense no change)

Jalal says “they have learned  Pashto”.
Jalal says that you have learned Pashto.                (tense no change)

Suhail says “we will come on time tomorrow”.
Suhail says that they will come on time tomorrow.(tense no change)



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Reported speech in question


Note:- In question, instead of said that we use asked if.

Jamal said “Do you speak English?”
Jamal asked if I spoke English.

Helal said “Did he come to class yesterday?”
Helal asked if you had come to class the previous day.

Samim said “Can you learn the key of tenses?
Samim asked (me) if I could learn the key of tenses.


Note:- In wh question, instead of  if  we use the wh question word.

Fahim said “Where do you live?”
Fahim asked (me) where I lived.

Nesar said “When did you graduate from high school?”
Nesar asked when I had graduated from high school.

Suliman said “when has he returned home?”
Suliman asked when you had returned home.

Or

      Suliman wanted to know when you had returned home.









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